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Similarly, EPA and DHA can compete with arachidonic acid for the synthesis of eicosanoids.Thus, higher concentrations of EPA and DHA than arachidonic acid tip the eicosanoid balance toward less inflammatory activity .Within intestinal cells, free fatty acids are primarily incorporated into chylomicrons and enter the circulation via the lymphatic system [1,4].Once in the bloodstream, lipoprotein particles circulate within the body, delivering lipids to various organs for subsequent oxidation, metabolism, or storage in adipose tissue [4,5].PUFAs are distinguished from saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids by the presence of two or more double bonds between carbons within the fatty acid chain.Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) have a carbon–carbon double bond located three carbons from the methyl end of the chain.
PUFAs are frequently designated by their number of carbon atoms and double bonds.
Omega-3s play important roles in the body as components of the phospholipids that form the structures of cell membranes .
DHA, in particular, is especially high in the retina, brain, and sperm [3,5,6].
ALA, for example, is known as C18:3n-3 because it has 18 carbons and 3 double bonds and is an n-3, or omega-3, fatty acid.
Similarly, EPA is known as C20:5n-3 and DHA as C22:6n-3.
The eicosanoids made from omega-6s are generally more potent mediators of inflammation, vasoconstriction, and platelet aggregation than those made from omega-3s, although there are some exceptions [3,7].